## What Is the Range of 4-Bit Adder? | Maximum Output of a 4-Bit Adder

In decimal format, a 4-bit adder can operate between 0 and 15. An important part of digital circuits and computer systems is the 4-bit adder. It can add two 4-bit binary values ​​to produce a 4-bit sum output and also…

## How to Connect an Oscilloscope to a Circuit? | A Step by Step Guide

Oscilloscopes are an important tool in any electrical engineer’s lab. A specific and exact guideline is maintained to connect an oscilloscope to a circuit. In particular, proper grounding is very vital for your safety as well as the safety of…

## Can I Use a 12V Power Supply on a 6V? | Would be It Ideal?

The voltage should not be an issue if the device has its own internal switching regulator. However, if not, a high voltage supply can cause serious problems like overheating and destroying equipment. So, the answer is negative.  Is It Idea…

## PWM and Triangular Wave Generators | Create Precise Waveforms with PWM and Triangular Techniques

You may be already aware of the PWM and triangular wave generator. There are different kinds of waves such as sine waves, square waves, and triangle waves. Triangle waves are commonly found and used in audio production, and they are…

## Impedance vs Inductance | Key Differences Between Impedance and Inductance

Impedance and inductance have a specific and different impact during the flow of current in a particular circuit depending on passive elements present in that circuit. Impedance is a measurement of a circuit’s total opposition to electric current including both…

## Basic DAC and ADC Circuits – How to Build DAC & ADC Circuits?

The Digital-to-Analog Converter (DAC) and the Analog-to-Digital Converter (ADC) circuits are discussed here. A Digital to analog converter (DAC) converts binary digital data to an analog form by using an R-2R ladder (binary weighted resistor) network and a summing amplifier….

## What Is the Difference Between Differential Gain and Common-Mode Gain? | A Detailed Comparison between Two Input Signals

The key difference between differential gain and common-mode gain is that differential gain refers to the gain applied to the difference between two input signals in a differential amplifier whereas Common-mode gain refers to the gain applied to signals that…

## Why Is Open Loop Gain Infinite in Op-Amp? | A Detailed Guide

The open-loop gain of an operational amplifier (op-amp) is considered infinite for ideal cases due to the input signal (differential or single) being slightly greater than zero.  In practical terms, it is typically considered very high. Open-Loop Configuration in Op-Amp…

## How to Attach Wires to a Circuit Board Without Soldering? | Different Methods for Proper Attaching

Several methods are available to connect wires to a circuit board other than soldering. They include using hot glue, alligator clips, or electrical tape. The methods are simple and the tools are reading and available in most hardware and electrical…