An operational amplifier-based triangular wave generator using op-amp 741 is a simple circuit that is widely used in function generators. A triangular wave is the output of an integrator if the input to it is a square wave. It means that a triangular wave generator can be formed by simply cascading an integrator and a square wave generator, as illustrated in the figure. This circuit uses two operational amplifiers. First op-amp functions as a comparator and the next op-amp as an integrator

## Circuit Diagram

## Components Required

- Resistors (1kΩ, 12kΩ, 180Ω)
- Op Amp 741×2
- Capacitor (0.1µF)

## Working of Triangular Wave Generator Using Op Amp 741

- At first, the comparator compares the voltage at a point ‘P’ continuously with respect to the voltage at the inverting input. This point is at ground potential.
- As soon as, the voltage at P goes slightly below zero, the output of comparator will switches to negative saturation.
- Consider the output of comparator is +Vsat. Since this voltage is the input of integrator, then its output will be negative going ramp.
- As a result, one end of the potential divider R1 R2 is at +Vsat and other end is at negative going ramp. When the negative going ramp attains a value say –Vramp the effective voltage at P becomes slightly less than 0V. This switches output of comparator to –Vsat.

- By this time, integrator output will be positive going ramp. When the value of positive going ramp attains +Vramp, voltage at ‘P’ becomes slightly greater than 0V. There by switching comparator output to +Vsat.

- This cycle repeats and generates a triangular waveform
- Triangular waveform can also be generated by integrating square wave from an astable multivibrator.

## Output Waveform

## Design of Triangular Wave Generator

The frequency of the triangular waveform is given by either the following expressions

Peak to peak amplitude of ramp voltage is

## Components Pin Out of Op Amp 741

## Simulated Output Waveform

The output waveform of the triangular wave generator using simulated using Multisim

## Conclusion

Triangular waves have significant applications in different electronic projects. It is easy to generate using the op-amp and requires a very simple circuit construction. The simulated output almost matches the theoretical output. Thus anyone can generate a triangular wave using an operational amplifier following the above tutorial.

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