Road accidents are on the rise day by day, and in countries like India where bikes are more prevalent many people die due to carelessness caused by wearing motorcycle helmets. Even though there has been continuous awareness from the government authorities regarding helmets and seat belts a majority of the drivers do not heed them.
In order to put an end to this misery, we have developed the smart helmet for motorcycles, a way to stop starting vehicles without wearing helmets or even if the driver is boozed. In addition, it has a great feature of detecting accidents and informs specific people via SMS about the location and speed of the bike before the accident occurs with the help of a GPS GSM-based tracking system. Thus aiding the ambulance to reach the correct location. We have implemented all the sensors within the helmet, which will send the information to the module connected with the bike engine wirelessly. A display is provided to monitor the status.
This smart bike helmet system has two modules, one on the helmet and another one on the bike. An accident sensor, helmet sensor, and alcohol sensor are attached to the helmet module and GPS and GSM are connected with the module on the bike that has displayed to monitor status.
Circuit Diagram of Smart Helmet For Motorcycle
Components Required for Accident and Alcohol Detection Smart Helmet
- IC HT12E
- IC HT12D
- IC 7805 x2
- RF Transmitter and Receiver
- Resistor (1K x3, 10K x2, 33K ,330, 750K)
- Capacitor (0.1uF x3, 22pf x2, 10uF, )
- Relay 12V/10A
- GSM Module (SIM900)
- GPS Module
- Vibration sensor (Accident sensor)
- Alcohol sensor
- 9V Battery
- 12V battery or use a bike battery
- General PCB
- Push-button (Push to OFF type) as helmet sensor
Working Principle of smart helmet for motorcycle
We will explain the working principle of each module separately:
- The three sensors- alcohol, accident, and the helmet sensors are assembled here; it will run with a 9V battery. The 7805 linear regulators IC connected to the circuit will convert 9V to 5V.
- This circuit contains an RF transmitter, Encoder, sensors, and regulator. Output from each of the sensors is connected to the data input pins of the encoder (AD9, AD10, and AD11). The encoder will continuously encode and these sensors values are fed to the RF transmitter to transmit data to the ECU unit for further actions.
- All the sensors we have used here are digital (TTL output) to make our system easier.
- Push-button is used here as a helmet sensor i.e. it will detect the wearing of a helmet. It must be pushed off type i.e. in normal conditions it will be ON and when pushed it will be OFF.
- An alcohol sensor must be placed in front of the mouth to check alcohol content in the breath.
- A vibration sensor is used to detect accidents, so it should be placed on the helmet where vibration occurs when the helmet hits the ground.
- This system includes a GPS module, GSM module, PIC microcontroller, RF receiver, and decoder
- RF receiver receives signals from the helmet module and is decoded by decoder IC HT12D
- The decoder is directly connected to PORTE, it is continuously scanned by PIC and does the required actions.
- Relay is used to short the spark plug to the ground; normally vehicle body is connected to the ground.
- In a normal case, the spark plug is shorted to the ground, it will disconnect from the ground only after wearing a helmet and when no alcohol is detected.
- The vibration sensor is fixed on the helmet, if an accident occurs it will detect and send signals through RF, it will send an SMS to the specified number with the accident location and vehicle speed just before the accident had occurred.
- LCD display shows the status of the system- detection of alcohol, accident detection, speed of the vehicle, and accident location.
These two modules communicate wirelessly using an RF transmitter and receiver with encoder and decoder, PIC16F877A is used as CPU. This is one of the most advanced electronics projects for engineering students.