What is the use of voltage stabilizer? Voltage stabilizers are used to stabilize the input voltage to protect the rest of circuitry from unwanted electrical spikes, nowadays some devices have inbuilt stabilizer circuit. Due to the fluctuation of supply voltage devices may malfunction or damage permanently; to avoid these problems an ac voltage stabilizer is used. Now what is the voltage stabilizer price in local market? Is it reasonable?
Here we are gonna introduce a simple voltage regulator circuit diagram for low current devices. The main advantage of this circuit is that it will not use transformers of any kind.
Then how stabilizing is possible? Do you know resistor circuit can do stabilizing? Our voltage stabilizer circuit for ac uses only resistor to reduce the voltage, moreover the circuit embedded with buzzer alerts us while supply voltage turns below a preset level.
This low cost circuit is controlled by simple comparator IC LM324. Try this and build a home voltage stabilizer of your own.
Circuit of Voltage Stabilizer
- IC LM324
- Transistor (BC548x2)
- Zener diode (3.9V)
- Diode (1N4007x2)
- LED (Green, Red)
- Capacitor (100uFx2, 1000uF)
- Resistor (1Kx5,180/20 watts)
- POT (10Kx2)
- Buzzer (12V)
- Relay (12V/10A)
- Transformer (230V/0-12V; 500mA)
- 15 watt incandescent lamp
Working of Stabilizer Circuit
- Circuit design of stabilizer is quite easy and compact. This is a relay type voltage stabilizer circuit diagram.
- A 12V step down transformer is used to drive the stabilizer circuit and the same transformer is used to analyze the input line voltage.
- Bridge rectifier is employed to convert AC to DC and 1000µF capacitor is used to filter AC ripples.
- LM342 has four embedded comparators, among those we have used only two comparators for our stabilizer. First comparator compares low voltage level and other one for comparing high voltage level.
- A 3.9V Zener diode is used to obtain reference voltage of 3.9V (can use any Zener diode of below 6V) and this reference voltage is used by both comparators.
- Reference voltage is connected to the non-inverting terminal of the upper comparator and potentiometer is connected to inverting terminal. Then adjust the potentiometer value to get voltage greater than 3.9V (reference voltage) by keeping normal input voltage.
- Inverting terminal of lower comparator is connected to reference voltage and the potentiometer corresponding to it is set to a voltage which is below the reference voltage (3.9 V) at non-inverting terminal.
Case 1: Normal supply voltage
- In this situation both comparators are OFF (Output is low).
- At normal supply voltage the lamp appears to be directly connected between phase and neutral. Same time the output of upper comparator is negative then LED_GREEN is ON, which indicates that input is normal. (Refer the following fig)
Case 2: Supply voltage Increases
- When the AC input voltage is increased, corresponding output of DC also increases. When it exceeds preset level 3.9 V, obviously the voltage drop across both potentiometers will increase. When the voltage drop is greater than 3.9V then the output of lower comparator will become positive.
- It leads to LED_RED and transistor to become ON, thus relay will switch and the connection to the lamp becomes through the resistor. So the voltage drop across lamp will reduce since resistor and lamp will come in series to the main supply. (LED_RED indicates the supply voltage increased).
Case 3: Supply voltage decreases (Approximately below 180V AC)
- When the line voltage is below a threshold level then voltage drop across both potentiometer will decrease, then the non-inverting terminal of upper comparator gets higher voltage than inverting terminal.
- Then the output of upper comparator becomes positive and LED_GREEN turns OFF.
- Transistor gets turned ON, accordingly relay ON which make disconnection of lamp from the supply. Same time buzzer is also turned ON to indicate the line voltage is below 180 volt.
In this way our stabilizer controls the output load.
- The value of the series resistor connected to lamp depends on the load power, for high power devices higher wattage resistors should be used.
- We can build a high power stabilizer by little alteration in the circuit together with a step up transformer which can be used for refrigerator, TV, washing machines etc.
Now let me ask a question, weather the voltage stabilizer circuit for home is useful to you? Reply your suggestion via the comments.