Automatic water tank level controller motor driver circuit- Engineering project without Microcontroller

Automatic water level controller circuit is a simple engineering project. It can automatically switch ON and OFF the domestic water pump set depending on the tank water level. You can implement this motor driver circuit at your home or college using less costly components. The approximated cost of the project is about $5 only. The main advantage of this water level controller circuit is that it automatically controls the water pump without any user interaction.
The heart of this pump controller circuit is a NE 555 IC; Here we have manipulated the flip flop inside the 555 timer IC. Our project consists of two water level sensors, one fixed at the top and other at the bottom. Working of this circuit is almost similar to a bi stable mutlivibrator. Simulation of this circuit is also given below. Definitely this will help you to do your academic project.

Circuit Diagram

Automatic+Water+Tank+Controller+Engineering+Project Automatic water tank level controller motor driver circuit  Engineering project without Microcontroller

Components Required

  1. Power supply (6v)
  2. NE 555 timer IC
  3. Resistors (100Ωx2, 10kΩ)
  4. Relay (6V, 30A)
  5. BC 548 transistor x2
  6. 1N4007 Diode

Working of Automatic water tank level controller

  • We know the property of 555 timer IC, i.e. its output goes HIGH when voltage at the second pin(trigger pin) is less than 1/3 Vcc.
  • Also we can reset back the IC by applying a LOW voltage at the 4th pin (Reset pin).
  • In this project 3 wires are dipped in water tank. Let us define two water levels- Bottom (Low) level and Top (Up) level. One of the wire or probe is from Vcc.
  • The probe from bottom level is connected to the trigger (2nd) pin of 555 IC. So the voltage at 2nd pin is Vcc when it is covered by water.
  • When water level goes down, the 2nd pin gets disconnected(untouched) from water i.e. voltage at the trigger pin becomes less than Vcc. Then the output of 555 becomes high.
  • The output of 555 is fed to a BC548 transistor, it energizes the relay coil and the water pump set is turned ON.
  • While the water level rises, the top level probe is covered by water and the transistor becomes ON. Its collector voltage goes to Vce(sat) =0.2.
  • The low voltage at the 4th pin resets the IC. So the output of 555 becomes 0V. Hence the motor will turn OFF automatically.
  • For simple demonstration of this project you can use a DC motor directly at the output of 555 instead of relay.
  • For practical implementation, you must use a relay. Rating of relay is chosen according to the load (Motor). 32 Ampere relay is best suited for domestic applications.

Simulation of the Project

Motor+ok+ gif Automatic water tank level controller motor driver circuit  Engineering project without Microcontroller

The mouse click on the bottom level and top level switches show the level of water, From the animation you can see that when the water is at the bottom level the motor starts working and when water reaches at top level motor stops functioning.
Also read:

Now, here is your water level controller project. Was this project helpful to you? Don’t forget to use the comment box below to share your views and clarify any doubt regarding the project.

PCB layout

Automatic+Water+Tank+Controller+Engineering+Project+PCB Automatic water tank level controller motor driver circuit  Engineering project without MicrocontrollerAutomatic+Water+Tank+Controller+Engineering+Project+PCB+layout Automatic water tank level controller motor driver circuit  Engineering project without Microcontroller
Click on the images for enlarged view

Components Pin out

555pinout1 Automatic water tank level controller motor driver circuit  Engineering project without Microcontroller
BC547 Automatic water tank level controller motor driver circuit  Engineering project without Microcontroller

72 thoughts on “Automatic water tank level controller motor driver circuit- Engineering project without Microcontroller

    • I'm also having same problem. Nothing happened after switched on. The 100 Ohm resistor heated up. Changed another transistor but same problem. Not working.

    • Hi Daryl,
      Please see to that if your relay is working fine, you can do that by connecting to 6V Vcc(if 6V relay is used). Also check if diode is connected properly.

    • Hi Admin,
      I have the same problem of heat generation at 100 ohm resistor attached to pin no 3.
      I have used 12v supply and relay, I have checked the circuit is working fine, only problem is heat generation at 100ohm when water level is low and the relay is charged to on position. please reply.

  1. Sir,

    I want to use it for 5 storey building.Pl let me know
    1) VCC = 6 volt and relay = 6volt is suitable ?
    2) From ground floor to terrece using 2 pair telephone cable for sensers is good to drive the circuit? Its approximately 30 metres cable length.

  2. I had purchased one kit from your online store, i have existing panel board in digital as well as old style analog. Can you let me know how to connect relay ? I have on and off button in both the panel.
    Thanking you

  3. hi,
    dear i built this project at proteus nd as well multisim to simulat it but its not woeking properly….
    moter turn off when water goes to upper level nd start as water level goes down uper level … but ther is nothing about the low level switch either it will be on or off moter does not start when water level goes down to low level…..i can send yu the simulating file of this

  4. This almost has the the functionality I’m looking for. We have a low yielding well and have to use a water storage system. It is bad to run a well dry so the pump would have to have to turn on once level drops below the high level sensor and turn on for short durations and then off allowing the well to replenish. Cycling in this fashion till the storage tank returns to the high level mark. Then of course a dry-run circuit would be optimal to ensure no damage is done to the pump if anything goes wrong. Anyway this could be done?

    • Hi Nick,
      To implement “Dry Run” is very simple, I will publish an article regarding simple dry run circuit in near future.


  5. Hi Jaseem
    i try your circuit and working good, but i have one little problem
    i need then relay have about 30 sec delay

  6. So I only have 2 probes
    the first is powered with 12Vdc
    the second and ‘connected to the base of the transistor in series with a potentiometer
    I need that the first pulse on the base of the transistor, the relay energizes and remains energized for 1 minute (adjustable time), regardless if the base signal comes up or stops.
    after the selected time, the timer turns off by itself, and is ready to receive the new signal of the base.
    I need this’ cause when the charge pump water, the water level is not ‘stable and the relay’ directly connected to the collector of the transistor off and attacks constantly for about 1 minute, until the level of ‘water will not be stabilized. in this way the life of the pump to be very small.
    I hope I explained clearly

    • Hi Sing,
      Thank you for asking doubts to CircuitsGallery. This diode is called ‘Free wheeling diode’ or ‘Flyback diode’ which is used to eliminate sudden voltage spikes seen across inductive loads at the time of switching ON or OFF the power supply.

  7. 1. For submersible pumps, there will be 2 buttons, in which one is to start the motor and the other is to stop. The starting switch connects starting capacitor for approx a second to get the initial torque to the motor [ = = ]. When the red switch got pushed, it disconnects the supply to the contactor and the motor stops. now, please try to provide the circuit, in which the relay should trip in a second to start the motor when water is at low level and the stop switch can be connected to relay in series to stop supply to the contactor. it may need 2 relays undoubtedly.
    2. the present circuit for monoblock motors is working fine, but when any other switch like a calling bell switch is pressed, the motor is getting started irrespective of water level in the tank. what to do? :)

  8. Hi admin.. I want to add a circuit that cuts off the supply to the motor automatically when water does not get sucked up to the tank by the pump, due to some fault like air lock. Please suggest me an idea as to what I should do for this.

    • Hey Sandeep,
      You need to add an extra dry run circuit for that, it can be achieved by a simple logic. We’ll publish it soon. So stay tuned and by the way follow us on facebook and google plus.

  9. Hi dear sir.
    This cuircuit is only for over head tand but i want to make the water level using under ground tank nd upper tank both. So can u help me on that ?? Or send me the cuircuit on my mail.

  10. Please I need a detailed diagram ad description on this topic so I understand it cos it is part of my project work. Thank you for your effort so far.

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